Environmental policies will play an increasingly important role: The economic, social and health costs of environmental degradation, deteriorated infrastructure and natural disaster impacts and climate change, are likely to remain high, while economic growth and demographic development will further increase pressure on the environment and natural resources. At the same time, low efficiency in energy supply and consumption across all sectors is not only imposing a severe burden on the national economy and population but is also an environmental concern. Renewable energy potentials are not well exploited yet. Moreover, Moldova has significant commitments under multiple multilateral environmental agreements. Increased coherence with international standards and approximation to the EU environment acquis will remain a challenge in the years ahead and require strong institutions and resources to ensure compliance and a careful prioritisation of efforts.
While progress has been made on policy and legislation, similar to other sectors, implementation and enforcement are still weak and will depend on a well informed and educated public. Environmental monitoring systems and access to information are inadequate, and environmental authorities have limited political standing combined with weak capacities to formulate financially sound programmes.
The cross-cutting nature of environment protection, energy, disaster preparedness and risk reduction, calls for increased collaboration and better coordinated support from different UN Agencies, including UNDP, which is currently the only resident agency with a specific environment programme, UNEP, UNECE, UNIDO, UNICEF, WHO and others.
In order to address sector challenges, UN agencies' support should be continued towards reform and modernisation of the environmental management system, including strengthening institutions and enhancing capacities - for environmental management at central and local levels, for strategic and financial planning, and for enforcement. Additional priority activities should include environmental mainstreaming, supporting the forward looking integration of environmental considerations into sectoral development policies; development and use of new governance tools, including for trans-boundary environmental issues; and market-based instruments and fiscal mechanisms for environmental management.
Promotion of low emission and climate resilient development should remain a central theme, including developing the enabling policy framework and capacities for investments in low-carbon and environmentally friendly technologies and sectors, as such contributing to sustainable production and consumption and green job creation. Special emphasis is indicated on upscaling energy efficiency measures, specifically in the housing sector, and use of renewable energy sources.
Finally, UN involvement in strengthening disaster and climate risk management should continue in an integrated manner, building on the lessons learned from previous emergency responses.