LP81 of 07.05.10, MO87-90/04.06.10 art.250
LP64-XVIII of 12.11.09, MO171-172/27.11.09 art.533
ARTICLE 1. Political parties
(1) Political Parties are voluntary associations, with the status of legal entity, of citizens of the Republic of Moldova with the right to vote, which through the joint activities and on the basis of the principle of free participation, are contributing to the concept, expression and accomplishment of their political will.
(2) Political parties, being the democratic institutions of the state of law, promote democratic values and political pluralism, contribute to the formation of public opinion, participate via submitting and supporting the candidates for the election for public office, encourage the participation of citizens in elections, perform other activities under the provisions of the current legislation.
(3) Political parties may set up structures that will address particular problems of some social and professional groups.
(4) In order to implement their political will, parties may affiliate with some international political organizations, with similar values, conceptions, ideals and goals.
ARTICLE 2. Territorial principle of political parties’ organization
(1) Political parties are organized under the administrative –territorial organization of the Republic of Moldova.
(2) Leading bodies, branches and structures of political parties may have their headquarters in the territory which is under the Republic of Moldova’s jurisdiction.
(3) Political parties cannot set up their structures and bodies within other institutions, organizations and enterprises.
(1) Associations of citizens of the Republic of Moldova may act as political parties only performing activities with a political character, being constituted pursuant to the law and observing the sovereignty, unitary character of the state, territorial integrity, democratic values and legal order of the Republic of Moldova.
(2) Political parties that through their statute and program dissipate contrary ideas to the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Moldova are prohibited.
(3) Political parties are prohibited from affiliation with the international political organizations which through the character, goals and their activity infringe on the values specified by paragraph (1) of this article.
(4) Parties are prohibited from organizing military, paramilitary activities, as well as other kind of activities forbidden by the law.
(5) Any interference with the internal activity of political parties is prohibited, except the cases stipulated by the law.
(6) In the Republic of Moldova, establishment and activity of any parties or other states’ political organizations, as well as their branches and structures is prohibited.
(7) The establishment of political parties on the basis of ethnic and racial criteria is prohibited.
(1) Each political party has a full name, an abbreviation and unique symbols.
(2) Full name, abbreviation and insignias should be clearly distinguished from those of parties that were registered before in the Republic of Moldova, including those of parties withdrawn from the Register of political parties. Use of the same graphic insignias by parties, regardless of the geometric shape they are placed in, is prohibited.
(3) The mentioned insignias in paragraph (1) may not be reproduced or combined with the state insignias of the Republic of Moldova, other states, international organizations, religious worships, and they must not project the scope and provisions of article 3 paragraphs (1) – (2).
(4) The political parties may use, as such or in a specific combination, the insignias of the international political parties of which they are members.
(1) With the aim of stimulating the efficient exercise of government activities and, in order to efficiently establish, via this exercise, the principle of public wellness, the state supports the development of political parties. Through this law and other normative acts, legal mechanisms for the functioning of political parties and their structures are established Financing for political parties and their structures is established from private sources and from the state budget.
(2) Discrimination in order to get the state assistance for political parties is prohibited.
(3) The state support of political parties is done only according to the law.
(1) Members of political parties may be citizens of the Republic of Moldova which, under the norms stipulated by the current legislation, have the right to vote. The membership is certified by the identity card. The form of the identity card for each political party is established by statute.
(2) Citizens of the Republic of Moldova have the right to freedom of association in political parties, the right to participate in those activities and the right to leave political parties. No one may be forced to join or not to join a political party.
(3) Every person who becomes a member of a political party is required to make a written declaration, on its own responsibility, confirming that he or she is or is not a member of any other political party.
(4) Persons that, pursuant to the provisions of the legislation in force, are prohibited from participating in activities with political character cannot be members of political parties.
(1) To become member of a political party, a citizen of the Republic of Moldova submits a written request to the party. The relevant body of the political party that is authorized to accept new members will decide to accept or deny the request for admission to the party.
(2) The citizen of the Republic of Moldova cannot be simultaneously member of two or more political parties. Through the admission to another political party, the person automatically looses membership in the party he/she was a member of before.
(3) The admission to another political party, as well as the loss of its membership, cannot create privileges or restrictions on exercising the fundamental rights and duties of the individual.
(4) Members of political parties may resign from the party by submitting a written request.
(5) Gain and loss of political party membership is regulated through the internal norms of the party, in compliance with the provisions of the party’s statute.
(1) The following documents should be submitted to the Ministry of Justice for registration of a political party:
a) request to register the political party;
b) statute of the political party;
c) program of the political party;
d) document of establishment with a list of the political party’s members. A minimum of 4 000 members is required, constitutive acts of the territorial organizations of the party, the list of delegates who participate at the constituting congress. At the time of the parties’ establishment, at least half of, its members must be residents of second level administrative-territorial units from the Republic of Moldova, with no less than 120 residents in each of the administrative-territorial units. The membership list is constituted on the basis of admission requests and will consist of: name, surname, date of birth, residence, number of identity card, personal code, place of work, and member’s signature;
e) a declaration concerning the legal residence of the party;
f) proof of a bank account;
(2) The documents mentioned in paragraph (1) letter b), c) and d) are accompanied with their copies in electronic version.
(3) The Ministry of Justice, within the period of a month from the date of documents submission provided by paragraph (1), will adopt a decision of political party’s registration or, if the party has not obeyed the provisions of the present law, a decision of rejection the party’s registration.
(3) The Ministry of Justice, in one month from the date of submittal of the documents provided in paragraph (1), shall adopt a decision of registration of the political party or, in case of non-observance to the requirements of the present law, a decision through which the registration of the party is refused.
(4) The decision of the Ministry of Justice concerning the rejection of the political party’s registration can be appealed within 10 days from the date of its adoption by the Chisinau Court of Appeal.
(5) For the registration of the political party’s statute, as well as of the modifications and amendments made in it, a state fee in the amount of 200 lei is paid.
(6) During the party’s registration, the participation of the representative of its leading body is compulsory.
(7) A political party becomes legal entity at the date of the registration of its statute and is included in the Register of Political Parties.
The decision of political party’s registration may be declared void through a decision of the court.
(1) Amendment or completion of political party’s statutes and programs may be done in compliance with the procedure established in the political party’s statute.
(2)The Ministry of Justice is informed of any amendment to the political party’s statute or program during a period of not more than 30 days from the date of adoption.
(3)The registration of amendments and completions to the statute of the program of the political party is done by the Ministry of Justice according to the foreseen procedure in article 8, paragraph (3) – (6), which apply correspondingly.
ARTICLE 11. Political parties’ record
(1) The Ministry of Justice maintains the Register of political parties that is a legal instrument of recording political parties from the Republic of Moldova.
(2) The Ministry of Justice is the sole institution with the right to make amendments in the Register of political parties.
(3) The public has access to the information from the Register of political parties.
(4) The information on the registration or withdrawal of political parties, as well as the introduction of amendments and completions to their statutes is published in the Official Gazette and on the Ministry of Justice’s web site. The Ministry of Justice is responsible for publishing the information provided by the present article.
(1) Every political party is organized and acts on the basis of its statute and program.
(2) The political party’s statute and program have to be approved by their relevant bodies approved by its statute.
ARTICLE 13. Statute of political party
(1) The political party’s statute must include the following:
a) full name and abbreviation;
b) description of permanent insignias;
c) in an appendix, the white-black and colored permanent symbol in a graphic form;
d) a short review of pursued goals by the political activity;
e) conditions and procedure of designation of delegates to the general assembly;
f) members rights and obligations;
g) disciplinary sanctions, membership application procedures, as well as the competent body with right to apply penalties;
h) executive bodies, their election procedure, and their mandates;
i) the competent body that can initiate the party’s reorganization or determine affiliation with a political alliance or another form of parties’ association;
j) the body competent to designate candidates for elections in the local public administration and in Parliament, the procedure of designating candidates, as well as the procedure of modifying the list of candidates;
k) how the party may cease its activity;
l) the party’s financial resources and management of its goods, in compliance with the stipulations of the law;
m) the structures of the party responsible of accounting;
n) the modality of the internal financial control;
o) the competent body to represent party in connection with the state authorities and other physic and legal persons;
p) other compulsory provisions, pursuant to the law.
(2) The political party’s statute should expressly provide its organizational-legal form – political party.
(1) Political parties have central bodies and territorial organizations.
(2) The leading forum, i.e., the General Assembly of the party’s members or delegates, and the executive body, irrespective of the name they have according to the statute of the party, are compulsory for each political party, regardless of the name stipulated by the party’s statute. These are managed on both the central level of party’s leading body and on the level of its territorial organizations.
(3) The political parties’ territorial organizations are established accordingly to the Republic of Moldova’s administrative – territorial organization criteria.
ARTICLE 15. The party’s General Assembly
(1) The General Assembly of party’s members or delegates, at the national level, is the party’s supreme decision body. It may be named in another way, pursuant to the statute. The procedure for convening and the sequence of meetings of this body are provided by political party’s statute.
(2) During the meetings of political party’s General Assembly only members of this may participate as delegates.
SECTION 2: Activity of political parties
(1) All political parties have equal rights to participate in the elections of Parliament, and local public administration authorities.
(2) During the elections, all the participating political parties and those candidates for public offices benefit from broadcasting service at the national TV and radio channels, for free and under fair conditions, under the law,.
(3) Political parties have the right to organize meetings, demonstrations and other kinds of such activities, observing the public order, pursuant to the relevant laws in force.
(1) Parties develop their activities in order to fulfill their political will as reflected in the stipulations of their statutes and programs, registered in the established way, under the laws in force.
(2) In order to fulfill goals and tasks provided by the statute and their political program, parties may:
a) disseminate freely, through available means, information about their activities;
b) participate, independently or in association with other political parties, with their candidates in elections organized under the provisions of electoral legislation;
c) set up and own means of mass-media, and to carry out editorial activities, pursuant to the laws in force;
d) perform any other activities not prohibited by the law.
(1) Political parties are obliged to respect the legislation of the Republic of Moldova and their statutes provisions.
(2) In case of a legislative amendment, or if any statutes or programs of the parties are inconsistent with the provisions of the law, parties will adjust their documents in accordance with the law, through amendments and completions in compliance with the established procedure.
(3) Political parties must respond to their assumed obligations with their own patrimony.
(4) Political parties are not responsible for their members’ obligations, nor are members of political parties responsible for the assumed duties of parties.
Decisions of political parties and their territorial organizations are adopted by majority vote, as stipulated by the statute.
SECTION1: Reorganization of political parties
Political parties, according to the decision of their leading bodies, may reorganize through merger (unification and absorption), desegregation (division and separation) or transformation, according to the law.
(1) The activity of the political party may be limited if through its actions serious damages are caused to the political pluralism or to the fundamental democratic principles.
(2) In case when actions mentioned under paragraph (1) are found, the Ministry of Justice, through written request, shall request from the leading body of the respective political party, in at most one month, to take measures to cease these actions and to inform the ministry about the latter.
(3) If the leading body of the political party has not fulfilled the request o the Ministry of Justice, the activity of the political party shall be limited for a period of until 6 months through decision of the Chisinau Court of Appeal, at the request of the Ministry of Justice, which is submitted within 5 days after the expiry of the period provided in paragraph (2).
(4) The decision of the Chisinau Court of Appeal can be appealed within 10 days at the Supreme Court of Justice. The Appeal shall be examined within 15 days.
(5) During the period of limitation of the activity of the political party, the party is forbidden the founding of mass media, organization of assemblies, meetings, demonstrations, pickets and other public actions, use of all kinds of bank deposits, except the cases when deductions for contracting parties are needed, deductions related to individual labor contracts, deductions for repairing the damages caused by the actions of the political party, as well as deductions for payment of taxes, fees and fines.
(6) After elimination of all non-conformities for which the activity of the political party has been limited, the party shall inform the Ministry of Justice about this, which, within 5 days shall authorize the re-launch of its activity.
(7) If, during the period when the activity of the political party was limited, the actions for which the activity of the political party was limited are repeated or if, during the first year from the date of the last limitation of the activity of the party, it commits similar violations, the Ministry of Justice shall request from the Chisinau Court of Appeal the dissolution of the respective party.
(8) The activity of the political party cannot be limited one month prior to the Parliamentary elections or to the local general elections, as well as during the period of these elections.
(1) The political party’s activity may cease in case of:
a) reorganization, in cases provided by this law, if the party looses its legal personality through the process of reorganization;
b) self-dissolution, through the decision of its supreme decision body;
c) its dissolution through the decision of the Chisinau Court of Appeals, at the notification of the Ministry of Justice;
d) assessment of the party’s unconstitutionality through the decision of the Constitutional Court;
(2) The Ministry of Justice may request the Chisinau Court of Appeals to dissolve a political party if there is at least one of the following reasons:
a) the party operates based on its statute and program with amendments and completions that have not been registered in the way provided by the law;
b) during one year, which begins from the date of the final decision of the Chisinau Court of Appeal limiting the activity of the party, it committed actions similar to those for which the activity of the party has been limited;
Letter c) was excluded through Law No. 81 from 07.05.2010, in force from 04.06.2010.
d) the fulfillment of party’s political will is accomplished through illicit ways or means or contrary to the public order;
(3) The final decision of the Chisinau Court of Appeals referring to the political parties’ dissolution is transmitted to the Ministry of Justice that will note in the Register of political parties the beginning of its liquidation.
(4) In order to dissolve a political party the Ministry of Justice, in order to perform the decision of the Chisinau Court of Appeals, will establish a commission of political party’s liquidation. The existence of a political party ceases only after the procedures of liquidation, ending with parties’ withdrawal from the Register of political parties.
(5) After the cessation of political party’s activity, its patrimony will be transferred, free of charge, in state property to be used for charitable activities.
(1) Dissolution of a political party pursuant to article 22 paragraph (1) letter b) is performed, with the Ministry of Justice participation, by its collegiate leading body or by other persons assigned by the general assembly.
(2) In the decision adopted by the general assembly to liquidate the political party, the procedure and terms of liquidation, the destination of the remained goods after the liquidation, as well as the deadline when creditors may present their claims will be established. Liquidation should not take more than 30 days and begins from the date of publication of this decision in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Moldova.
(3) If the political party’s liquidation is performed pursuant to article 22 paragraph (1) letters c) and d), then the liquidators will be appointed, through a decision of liquidation of the relevant court.
(4) The bodies’ mandate of party or other social – politic organization is ceased, begins with the assignment of liquidators. The liquidators are obliged to fulfill all the requests stipulated by this law referred to the publication of the notice regarding the party’s or other social-politic organization liquidation. The notice regarding the liquidation will comprise:
a) name of liquidators and headquarters of the party or other social-politic organization;
b) procedure and term in order to realize the liquidation process, deadline when creditors may submit their claims;
c) invitation of the creditors in order to submit evidence of their claims. Known creditors will be invited through individual notification.
(5) Once they have been assigned, the liquidators are obliged to develop a list of the political party’s goods without delay, precisely indicating the assets and liabilities of the party. The list will be signed by liquidators and leaders of the permanent leading body.
(6) The liquidators are obliged to pursue the ongoing activities, to carry out the creditors’ claims, and, if cash is insufficient, to pay all the debts, they have the right to sell the political party’s goods. For the damages brought about because of them, the liquidators are responsible to both political party being liquidated and to third parties.
(7) After the end of the political party liquidation procedure, the liquidators are obliged to work out the liquidation balance and to submit it for approval to the Ministry of Justice and fiscal inspectorate bodies, as well as to publish it in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Moldova. The assets that remain after the fulfillment of all the creditors’ claims will be transferred as revenues to the state budget are to be used in charitable aims.
(8) In all the cases of political party liquidation, in order to be entered in the Register of political parties, the liquidators submit to the Ministry of Justice the following documents:
a) request concerning the withdrawal of the political party from the Register of political parties;
b) registration certificate (original);
c) document that confirms all the payments to the state budget, issued by the fiscal inspectorate;
d) documents of the party’s creation (original);
e) document for allowing the stamps to be destroyed, issued by the authorized body of police;
f) copy of notification on the political party’s liquidation, published in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Moldova.
(9) Liquidators duties’ cease with the ending of all financial-banking activities.
(1) Political parties have the right to own, with the property deed, buildings, equipment, publishing houses, printing works, transportation means, and other goods not prohibited by the law. The political parties’ goods may not be used for goals other than the fulfillment of tasks provided by their statute.
(2) The right of ownership of the political parties is regulated through the norms of civil legislation of the Republic of Moldova.
(3) Political parties is entitled to unfold editorial activity, activity closely related to its property management, as well as other economic activity which directly results from the aims provided for in the statute.
(4) Political parties cannot have in their possession, at their disposal or in use, weapons, explosives or other materials dangerous for life and health of the population, nor can they accept them for depositing or holding.
(5) Political parties’ patrimony cannot be distributed among their members.
(1) Financing of political parties may proceed from the following sources:
a) dues from the party’s members;
b) donations, including those collected from the recreational, cultural, sports or other mass activities organized by the party;
c) grants from the state budget, pursuant to the settlement of the present law and to the annual budgetary law;
d) other legally-obtained revenues according to art. 24 para. (3).
(2) Political parties cannot use financial sources other than those stipulated by article (1).
(3) Amount and way the dues is paid by members of a political party is established by the party’s statute.
(4) Revenue and payment activities of political parties are performed through accounts in Moldovan lei and foreign currency, opened in banks with the headquarters in the Republic of Moldova.
(5) Income provided by article (1) is exempt from taxes or is taxable according to the Tax Code.
(6) Public or private financing cannot limit the independence of political parties.
(7) The violation of legal provisions related to the financing of the political parties and related to the way of using by the political parties of the financial means and goods is penalized by law.
(8) The political parties do not have the right to open bank accounts abroad.
(1) The donation is the patrimony transmitted free of charge and non-conditionally to the political party and accepted by the latter.
(2) The annual revenues of a political party originated from donations cannot exceed the equivalent of 0,1% of the projected income to the state budget for that year.
(3) An individual may offer donations to one or more parties. The donations offered by one individual to one or more parties, during a budgetary year, cannot exceed the total worth of 500 average salaries of the country, provided for that year. If the individual is a party member, the mentioned sum is included in the amount of party quotas paid by him/her during one year.
(4) Donations made by a legal person to one or more political parties during a year, cannot exceed the amount 1000 average salaries of the country, provided for that year.
(5) Direct of indirect financing, material support of any kind of the political parties by other states and international organizations, by enterprises, institutions and organizations financed by the stat or with state capital, foreign capital, by non-commercial organizations, trade unions, charitable and religious organizations, by Moldovan citizens who are minors or abroad, by physical persons who are not citizens of Moldova, by anonymous persons and in the name of third parties, are forbidden.
(6) The part of the value of the donations, received by the political party, which exceeds the established amounts, as well as the sums received in violation of paragraph (5) are transferred as revenues to the state budget in accordance with the decision of the court.
ARTICLE 27. Public character of donations for political parties
(1) Each political party keeps a record of the register of received donations, including the donator’s identity and residence, and if the case demands, the headquarters and the amount donated.
(2)Political parties cannot receive anonymous donations or donations which exceed the limitations provided by the law.
(3) In case of receiving anonymous or donations which exceed the provided limitations foreseen in the present law, within the period of 10 days, the political party is obliged to pay these amounts to the state budget. .
(1) The annual amount allocated from the state budget for financing political parties constitutes 0, 2% of the projected accumulation in the state budget for a budgetary year and is distributed as follows:
a) 50% is rendered to political parties proportionally with mandates obtained in the parliamentary elections and validated by the setting up of the new legislature of the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova,
b) 50% is distributed to political parties proportionally with number of votes obtained in the general local elections, if these acquired not less than 20 offices in the representative bodies of the second level territorial-administrative units.
(2) Political parties loose their right to receive allocations from the state budget if:
a) their activity was limited, for the whole period of activity limitation;
b) lose their legal personality;
c) infringe on the financing provisions of the party, as well as on conditions stipulated by the paragraph (3) of this article;
d) begin the process of liquidation.
(3) Political parties which during the elections exceeded the maximum limit of expenditures provided by the law, and parties that were financed through the infringement of the law provisions, lose the right to receive financial allocations from the state budget.
(4)If a party loses its right to financing from the state budget by exceeding the approved limit of expenditures during the elections, this political party may regain its right after the next election, under the conditions of paragraph (1).
(5) A party that has lost the right to financing from the state budget due to infringement of the procedure for receiving income regains this right after correcting the violation that was the reasoning for the financing suspension.
(6) The allocated amounts for the financing of political parties are transferred to their account, under the conditions and in the amounts described in paragraph (1), by Central Electoral Commission on the votes obtained by the political parties.
(7) This amount is transferred to political parties from the state budget throughout the whole year, in equal monthly payments.
(8) In case of losing the right to be financed from the state budget, under the conditions of this law, the transfer of the respective amount ceases beginning with the first month following the month when this party lost its right.
(9) In case of reorganization of certain political parties that have the right to be financed from the state budget in the conditions of paragraph (1), the mentioned right is transferred to the successors by right – the reorganized political parties.
(1) Political parties will use proceeds from the state budget allocations, at the decision of their leading bodies, for the following goals:
a) headquarters maintenance;
b) personnel expenditures;
c) expenditures for media and advertising material;
d) expenditures for trips in country or abroad;
e) expenditures for telecommunications;
f) expenditures for organizing activities with political character;
g) expenditures for delegations from abroad;
h) payment of member dues in international organizations that this party is member;
i) investments in corporate goods and real estate, necessary for the activity of this party;
j) protocol expenditures;
k) stationery expenditures;
l) election expenditures.
(2) Incomes proceeded from the state budget allocations used for purposes other than those stipulated in paragraph (1) are returned to the state budget based on the final decision of the Chisinau Court of Appeal.
(3) Use of incomes proceeded from the state budget allocations are reflected distinctly in the political parties accounting.
(4) The control of using allocations from the state budget shall be done in accordance to the law by the competent bodies.
(1) Political parties, in accordance with the regulation approved by the Ministry of Justice, annually, until 31 March, shall present financial reports to the Court of Accounts, Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Justice.
(2) The reports mentioned in paragraph (1) shall be checked by the Court of Accounts relating to the subsidies received from the state budget, and by the Ministry of Finance, through its subordinated structures, relating to other revenues.
(3) The violation of the regulations related to the financing of political parties or related to the use by these of the means that belong to them makes them responsible according to the law.
Article 31. The public character of the information regarding the financing of electoral campaign
(1) The expenditures supported by the political parties in the electoral campaigns constitute information of public interest.
(2) At the date of registration as electoral candidate, and, consequently, at each two weeks until the date of concluding the elections, each political party which takes part in elections, in accordance with the regulation approved by the Central Electoral Commission, shall present to it reports related to the financial means of the party, including the expenses made in the respective electoral campaign, and regarding the sources from which these expenses were made. Later, similar reports for the entire electoral campaign shall be presented to the Central Electoral Commission within one month after the publication of the elections’ results.
(3) In case that, after the checks made at the request of the Central Electoral Commission by the competent bodies, it is found that the political party registered as electoral candidate has received or used financial means with violation of the provisions of the present law, the Central Electoral Commission will address the Supreme Court of Justice with a request to annul the registration of the party as electoral competitor. The Supreme Court of Justice shall examine the request within 5 days, but not later than one day prior to the election.
(4) If the information presented by a political party in the conditions of paragraph (2) is incomplete, the Central Electoral Commission has the right to request from the respective party supplementary data regarding the amount of each revenue on the account of this party and about the origin of these financial means.
(5) The Central Electoral Commission shall publicize on its webpage, within 2 months from the date of the elections, based on the information presented by the political parties, the expenditures of each political party for the respective electoral campaign.
(1) This law comes into force on the date of publication, except art. 28, which will be applied starting from 1 July 2013 for the Parliamentary elections and from 1 July 2011 for the local general elections.
(2) At the date when this law comes into force the Law of the Republic of Moldova concerning parties and other social-politic organization, nr. 718-XII din 17.09.1991 is abrogated.
The norms of the legislation that regulate the activity of political parties are applied to social-political organizations with status of legal entity of the citizens of the Republic of Moldova with the right to vote.
(2) The provisions of the legislation that regulate the activity of non - commercial organizations are applied to political parties and social-political organizationsif this law does not stipulate other provisions.
(1) The Government:
a) in a period of 3 months:
- will elaborate and present to the Parliament of Moldova in the established way, proposals related to the detailed procedure of declaring political parties as non-constitutional;
- will present to the Parliament proposals for bringing into conformity the legislation in force with the present law;
b) will include in the draft Law on the state budget for 2009 allocations for the financing of political parties in accordance with the present law.
(2) The political parties and the social-economic organizations, until 1 October 2008, will bring into conformity with the present law the documents that are the basis for their constituting and functioning, as well as their entire activity.
THE CHAIRPERSON OF PARLIAMENT